Aperture Photography is a hole within a lens, through which light travels into the camera body. It is an easy concept to understand if you just think about how your eyes work. As you move between bright and dark environments, the iris in your eyes either expands or shrinks, controlling the size of your pupil. In photography, the “pupil” of your lens is called aperture. You can shrink or enlarge the size of the aperture to allow more or less light to reach your camera sensor.
Using a low f/stop means more light is entering the lens and therefore the shutter doesn't need to stay open as long to make a correct exposure which translates into a faster shutter speed. Again, the reverse is true: using a high f/stop means that less light is entering the lens and therefore the shutter will need to stay open a little longer which translates into a slower shutter speed.
But, aperture photography does more than just control how light or dark an image is — it also gives the photographer creative control over how much of the image is in focus and how much is blurry.
A wide open aperture (remember, wide equals small numbers) creates a blurry background, while a narrow aperture (big f-number) keeps more of the photograph in focus. That's another photography term called depth of field.
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