"Hyrcanian forests " ' Hyrcanian Forest ' contains remnants (refugia) of the broad leaf forests that once covered most of the North Temperate Zone 25 - 50 million years ago, in the early Cenozoic Era. As the climate and land forms changed, this forest disappeared from most of its former range, being replaced by shrublands, grasslands, and woodlands. During the Pleistocene ("Ice Ages"), glaciations had minimal impact on Hyrcanian Forest. North of Iran as along band has diverse natural, economic and social conditions. Hyrcanian forest contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation." The Caspian forest "(North of Iran) areas are among the most unique and splendid biomes of the world. The Caspian forests have high moisture content, so forest trees are host to many epiphytes such as mosses, ferns, lichens, mistletoes and some flowering plants. Soils are productive and rich in minerals and organic matter
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